What You Must Know about Ani Fissure Disease

An ani fissure is an open wound condition or a tear in the skin and mucous tissue that lines the anal canal and anal canal. The anal canal is the last part of the large intestine, located between the stool (rectum) and the discharge hole (anus). Ani fissures generally arise because they are triggered by large, hard stools when a person defecates. The hard, large stool can erode the anus wall causing pain, bleeding, and tension in the muscles that open and close the anal canal (sphincter muscle ani). Tension in the sphincter muscle ani can reduce the blood supply to the anal canal, so the wound healing becomes slow. An anura fissure usually occurs acutely and can heal within a few days or weeks by increasing the intake of fibrous foods, so the stools are not hard. Sphincter ani muscle can also be stretched by soaking the pelvic area and the buttocks with warm water (sitz bath). If the anion fissure does not heal within 2 months, the condition will become chronic and require further medical treatment.

Symptoms of Ani Fissure

Tears in the ducts and anal canal can cause pain like being punctured on the anus and getting worse during or after bowel movements (BAB). In addition, a number of other symptoms that may accompany the ani fissures are:
  • bloody chapter.
  • Abnormalities of the skin around the tissue are torn, like there is a small bump.
  • Burning or itching in the anus.
  • Discharge of foul-smelling from the anus.

Causes of Ani Fissure

Injury to the anus is a major cause of fissure ani. This injury is usually caused by defecation patterns (BAB), either in the form of constipation that occurs due to large stools and hard texture, or diarrhea that occur repeatedly. Both conditions can cause anal rigors. In addition, ani fissures may arise because of the entry of solids through anus, such as thermometers, endoscopic devices, or ultrasound devices. Injury to the anus can also be experienced by women during childbirth, because the birth of the anus muscle involved stretched so easy to tear. People who have an anal intercourse can also get an anal wound.

In addition to anal injury, fissure ani may be a complication of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and sexually transmitted infections such as HIV, syphilis, and herpes.

Fisura ani is quite common and can affect all ages, both male and female. However, infants as well as adolescents and young adults aged 10-30 years are more often exposed to ani fissures. Parents also belong to a vulnerable group, because the blood flow to the anal area is reduced.

Ani Fissure Diagnosis

Doctors may suspect a patient has an ani fissure based on the symptoms he / she has experienced. To be sure, the doctor will perform anus examination. The examination of the anus begins by looking at the skin around the anal canal, whether there is a tear or not. After that, the doctor can do a rectal examination to finger the anal canal, in order to detect abnormalities in the wall of the anal canal. To see the condition inside the anal canal, the doctor can perform the examination using a tool such as a metal tube (anuscope) to dilate the anus, so that the anal canal is clearly visible.

Ani Fissure Treatment
Treatment of fissures ani aims to relieve pain and discomfort, as well as keep the BAB process smooth. Use of an anesthetic or an ointment such as lidocaine can relieve pain. However, this drug may cause side effects such as irritation and increased sensitivity to the skin around the anus.

In addition to lidocaine, paracetamol and ibuprofen tablets can also be used to relieve pain. Avoid painkillers that contain codeine. Meanwhile, an ointment containing corticosteroids may be administered if inflammation or swelling develops in the area of ??the fissured ani.

For ani fissures in infants and children, doctors will give laxatives that serve to soften the stool so as not to hurt during defecation. This drug is used until the child's condition is restored.

When the anion fissures do not improve with the treatment, doctors may provide a cream containing nitroglycerin or diltiazem to increase the blood supply to the anal canal. Botox injections as well as surgery by making small incisions in the muscles surrounding the anal canal to reduce muscle tone, can also be done.

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